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        昆陽米線節吃出“非遺味”

        發布時間:2019-04-19來源:

                 “三月十三,昆陽吃米線”,成為晉寧區昆陽街道辦事處下方古城村一帶的傳統民俗節慶。今年4月17日又逢農歷三月十三,一年一度的“米線節”依俗舉行。米線節民國前稱 “米線會”,在民間也稱“豆糠節”,由當地人迎土主、城隍儀式演變而來,發展成為迎土主、城隍,親友歡聚,主食米線的傳統節日。據《昆陽縣志》(1943年)載,“獻歲發春,豫悅情暢,鄉中各戶,為米線會,開閣延賓,屬饜酒肉,而以米線將之,非親非故,望門投止,罔弗歡迎。”2016年,“米線節”入選昆明市非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄。

        迎土主、城隍祈求來年風調雨順

                上午10點村中主持帶領下,村民在觀音寺祭祀土主、城隍。下午1點,舉行迎送土主、城隍儀式,迎送隊伍由主持、文武城隍儀仗(供品、神首、幡、肅靜回避匾牌、紙扎神馬、奏樂隊等)組成,緊隨其后是獅子舞、毛驢燈、秧佬鼓舞、旱船隊、扇花舞等迎城隍隊伍,一路鑼鼓陣陣,鞭炮齊鳴。隊伍從觀音寺出發,繞村巡游一周后回到觀音寺,其間分別在村西、村東、村子中心舉行祭祀儀式,宣讀祭文祭拜五方神靈,祈求上天保佑全村風調雨順,幸福平安。儀式結束后,在村子內舉行花燈、歌舞等表演,氣氛熱鬧非凡。

        村民在家門口祭祀土主、城隍

                關于“米線節”來歷,還有一段感人的傳說:古時候有一位姓土和一位姓陳兩位智謀出眾、品德高尚的圣人。他們在昆陽壩子旱澇成災、民不聊生之際,為了救民于苦難,拋下雙親妻兒,帶領鄉民開山造田,植樹保土,修渠引水。經過幾年治理,田園成形,五谷豐登,從此昆陽壩子人畜興旺,人們過上了好日子。可是二位“圣人”卻因操勞過度,過早地離開了人世。眾鄉民為了報恩,捐錢湊米,泥塑了土、陳二人的塑像(分別為土主、城隍),使他們英名永留世間。塑像進殿的當天,民眾做會聚餐,主食米線。席間一秀才見熱鬧異常,米線擺滿餐桌,便脫口道:“今天說是做會,還不如說是過節。”旁人追問:“今天又不是節,過什么節?”秀才手抬碗米線說:“就過米線節。”大家都說:“要得。”第二年米線節來臨時,各村各寨議論紛紛,有人提議聚會,也有人主張將土、陳塑像抬出殿到各村以表感恩之心。消息傳出,各村爭先恐后,有的村還未請到就被下一村抬走,只好在塑像路過村時點香燒紙。久而久之,請土主、城隍的日子就定為本村米線節,代代相傳。

        大家分享米線節主食

        米線節表演花燈劇 

                米線節是集民間信仰與飲食文化為一體的民俗節日,其內核是迎土主、城隍,邀請至親好友吃米線,歡慶節日。從民間傳說可看出它與興修水利,發展農業有關,祈求神靈保佑當地風調雨順;而米線節迎土主、城隍儀式,還承載和傳承著流傳在當地的民間文化形式(如毛爐燈、秧佬鼓舞、旱船蚌殼舞等),均與民眾生產生活息息相關。有助于增強社區群眾凝聚力,促進人與人、村與村之間感情交流及社會和諧,是一種順應人與自然和諧發展的人文情懷,體現了非遺“見人見物見生活”的保護理念。

        文字:楊劍龍(云南省非遺保護中心)

        圖片:吳昭紅、李成才、付東雙

        編輯:王   海(云南省非遺保護中心

        云南省文化和旅游廳 云南省非物質文化遺產保護中心
        云南省非物質文化遺產保護中心 通訊地址:云南省昆明市瓦倉南路瓦倉莊143號 郵編:650032 聯系電話:0871-63615136,0871-63622225
        技術支持:多彩科技 滇ICP備05008891號
        微信公眾平臺
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