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        歲有大寒知——二十四節氣之大寒

        發布時間:2019-01-20來源:


        二十四節氣字體設計之大寒(作者:石昌鴻團隊)

        節氣概說

               大寒是二十四節氣中的最后一個,每年1月20日前后,太陽到達黃經300°時即為大寒,今年的大寒時間是1月20日(農歷戊戌年臘月十五)。至此,節氣輪回,下一個節氣就是立春,新一輪的循環往復即將到來。

               “大寒年年有,不在三九在四九”。大寒和小寒是表示寒冷程度的節氣,古人認為:“大寒為中者,上形于小寒,故謂之大……寒氣之逆極,故謂大寒。” (《授時通考·天時》引《三禮義宗》)此時,寒潮南下頻繁,是大部分地區一年中最冷的時期,風大、低溫;北方正值“四九”天氣,黃河以北積雪不化,更是一片天寒地凍的嚴寒景象。

        一候瑞香(來源:網絡)

               根據《月令七十二候集解》記載,古時將大寒分為三候:“一候雞乳;二候征鳥厲疾;三候水澤腹堅。”就是說,大寒節氣便可以孵小雞了;而鷹隼之類的猛禽,正處于捕食能力極強的狀態,盤旋于空中到處尋找獵物,以補充能量、抵御嚴寒;水域中的冰一直凍到水中央,此時的冰最堅實、最厚。此外,江南一帶有二十四番花信,“一候瑞香,二候蘭花,三候山礬”,也被作為判斷大寒的重要標志。

        銀裝素裹的北國(攝影:翰石)

          農事農諺

               大寒節氣里,各地因為氣候條件不同,開展著不同的農事活動。北方地區的農事主要是積肥堆肥,為開春做準備,或者加強牲畜的防寒防凍。南方地區則仍在加強小麥及其他作物的田間管理。廣東嶺南地區有大寒聯合捉田鼠的習俗,此時作物已收割完畢,平時看不到的田鼠穴顯露出來,于是大寒成為集中滅鼠的重要時機。

         雪中行駛的和諧號動車組列車(來源:網絡)

               此外,各地人們還以大寒氣候的變化來預測下一年的雨水及糧食收成情況,便于及早安排農事。相關的農諺包括“大寒不寒,春分不暖”,意思是如果大寒這一天不冷,那么寒冷的天氣就會向后延展,來年春分時節會十分寒冷。“大寒見三白,農民衣食足”,意思是如果大寒時節下雪很多,把蝗蟲的幼蟲凍死,來年的農作物就能免遭蟲災,獲得豐收。此外還有“大寒不寒,人馬不安”“大寒白雪定豐年”“大寒無風伏干旱”等說法。關于氣候和農事的諺語還有:

        小寒大寒,殺豬過年。

        過了大寒,又是一年。

        該冷不冷,不成年景。

        大寒到頂點,日后天漸暖。

        大寒豬屯濕,三月谷芽爛。

        大寒牛眠濕,冷到明年三月三。

        南風送大寒,正月趕狗不出門。

        小寒不如大寒寒,大寒之后天漸暖。

               這個時期通常也是春運開始的時候,交通、運輸等行業需要特別注意,尤其是面對大雪等天氣情況,須采取相應措施,確保安全。

        尾牙祭(來源:網絡)

          節氣習俗

               尾牙祭 尾牙源自于拜土地公做“牙”的習俗,在中國福建沿海、臺灣等地仍保留著尾牙祭的傳統。所謂農歷二月二為“頭牙”,以后每逢初二和十六都要做“牙”,到了農歷十二月十六日正好是尾牙。尾牙與頭牙一樣,吃春餅(南方叫潤餅),這一天生意人要設宴,白斬雞為宴席上不可缺少的一道菜。據說雞頭朝誰,就表示老板明年要解雇誰。因此現在有些老板一般將雞頭朝向自己,以使員工們能放心地享用佳肴,回家后也能過個安穩年。

        小孩小孩你別饞,過了臘八就是年。(來源:網絡)

               臘八粥 至今,每逢農歷臘月初八,民間仍保留著吃臘八粥的風俗(有的地方是吃臘八飯)。進入臘月,天氣雖然寒冷,但春天已近,不會像大雪到冬至期間那樣酷寒。人們開始忙著除舊布新,置辦年貨,其間還有一個對北方人來說非常重要的日子,即農歷臘月初八。臘八粥是這一天人們不可或缺的一道主食,用多種食材熬制而成,包括五谷雜糧和花生、栗子、紅棗、蓮子等。吃臘八粥的食俗,有說是古代蠟祭的遺存(《禮記·郊特牲》),含祝禱之意,也有驅寒祈福、慶祝豐收的用意。

               “臘八節”也是宗教節日。傳說佛教的創始者釋迦牟尼在臘月初八悟道成佛,因此佛教寺院每年都要予以紀念。《東京夢華錄》記:“諸大寺作浴佛會,并送七寶五味粥與門徒,謂之臘八粥。都人是日各家亦以果子雜料煮粥而食也。又稱佛粥。”有些信眾認為,臘八供養佛陀的粥吉祥,于是年復一年,寺院做臘八粥的傳統便廣泛傳播到民間。

               消寒糕 消寒糕是年糕的一種,其糯米比大米含糖量高,食用后全身感覺暖和,在寒冬季節有溫散風寒、潤肺健脾胃的功效,還有“年高”之意,帶著吉祥如意、年年平安、步步高升的好彩頭。在老北京的習俗中,大寒這天,一家人分吃年糕,既帶著吉祥味,也能驅散身上寒意,所以稱為“消寒糕”。

        雪鄉美景(來源:網絡)

          節氣養生

               大寒節氣正值冬與春交替,飲食也需順應季節的變化。與冬至以來的溫補不同,大寒進補的食物量宜逐漸減少,具有升散性質的食物可適當添加,以適應春天萬物的升發。例如,廣東佛山民間有大寒時節用瓦鍋蒸煮糯米飯的習俗,安徽安慶有大寒炸春卷的做法,南京則有大寒燉雞喝雞湯的食俗。

        冬季,不少人鐘愛滑雪運動(來源:網絡)

               古人講究“春發、夏長、秋收、冬藏”的養生原則,認為這樣可以保持“春安、夏泰、秋吉、冬祥”。冬三月是生機潛伏、萬物蟄藏的時令,大寒的養生,更應著眼于“藏”。此時,人體的陰陽消長、新陳代謝也處于相對緩慢的時期,因此,起居上宜早睡晚起,室外活動不宜過早,避免急躁發怒、過度操勞,這樣才有利于安度寒冬。  

        來源:轉載自中國非物質文化遺產網

        編輯:王海(云南省非遺保護中心)

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