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        冬至陽生春又來——二十四節氣之冬至

        發布時間:2018-12-22來源:

        節氣概說

               冬至是二十四節氣的第22個節氣。每年12月22日左右,太陽到達黃經270°時為冬至。今年的冬至時間是2018年12月22日(農歷戊戌年十一月十六日)。冬至這天,太陽直射地面的位置到達一年的最南端,幾乎直射南回歸線,這一天北半球的白晝最短,且越往北越短,黑夜最長。“吃了冬至飯,一天長一線”,冬至后,白晝時間日漸增長,而夜晚漸漸縮短。我國除少數海島和海濱局部地區外,1月都是最冷的月份,天文學上也把“冬至”定為北半球冬季的開始。

               根據《月令七十二候集解》記載,冬至三候為:“一候蚯蚓結,二候麋角解,三候水泉動”。傳說蚯蚓是陰曲陽伸的生物,此時陽氣雖已生長,但陰氣仍然十分強盛,土中的蚯蚓仍然蜷縮著身體;糜與鹿同科,卻陰陽不同,古人認為糜的角朝后生,所以為陰,而冬至一陽生,糜感陰氣漸退而解角;山中泉水開始有涌動之勢。 

        農事農諺

               冬至后,雖進入了“數九天氣”,但各地氣候景觀差異較大。東北大地千里冰封,瓊裝玉琢;黃淮地區也常常是銀裝素裹;大江南北此時平均氣溫一般在5℃以上,冬作物仍繼續生長,菜麥青青,一派生機,正是“水國過冬至,風光春已生”。

        圖1 水彩畫《冬至》(作者:李大嘴)

               冬至前后是興修水利、大搞農田基本建設、積肥造肥的大好時機,同時要做好防凍工作。江南地區更應加強冬作物的管理,清溝排水、培土壅根,增強土地的蓄水保水能力,消滅越冬害蟲。已經開始春種的南部沿海地區,則需要認真做好水稻秧苗的防寒工作。民間有許多諺語,以冬至日的天氣來預測后期天氣,如:

        冬至多風,寒冷年豐。

        冬至在月頭,要冷在年底; 

        冬至在月尾,要冷在正月;  

        冬至在月中,無雪也沒霜。  

        冬至三九則冰堅,冬至有霜年有雪。  

        立冬無雨看冬至,冬至無雨一冬晴。  

        冬至晴,正月雨;冬至雨,正月晴。  

        冬至冷,春節暖;冬至暖,春節冷。  

        冬至西北風,來年干一春。

               流傳最廣的冬至歌謠就是數九歌,雖然版本頗多、南北各異,但大意是相同的:  

        一九二九不出手;

        三九四九冰上走;

        五九六九,沿河看柳;

        七九河開,八九雁來;

        九九加一九,耕牛遍地走。

               值得一提的是,江蘇的數九歌把冬日農事做了形象的歸納:  

        一九二九,背起糞簍;

        三九四九,拾糞老漢沿路走;

        五九六九,挑泥挖溝;

        七九六十三,家家把種揀;

        八九七十二,修車裝板兒;

        九九八十一,犁耙一起出。

               可見,冬至期間主要是為開春后的農事活動做準備。

        圖2 三門祭冬拜祖場景(攝影:鄭有堆)    

        節氣習俗

              《周禮》中有記載“以冬至日,致天神人鬼”的祭祀儀式。《后漢書》中記載:“冬至前后,君子安身靜體,百官絕事,不聽政,擇吉辰而后省事。”官府放假七天,要舉行祝賀儀式,稱為“賀冬”。“冬至郊天”的禮儀(《周禮·春官·大司樂》:凡樂……冬日至,于地上之圜丘奏之),即祭天大典,一直延續到后世。宋代孟元老在《東京夢華錄》中記述:“十一月冬至,京師最重此節,雖至貧者,一年之間,積累假借,至此日更易新衣,備辦飲食,享祀先祖……慶賀往來,一如年節。” 

        圖3 三門祭冬拜祖禮儀(攝影:陳興長)

               宋以后,冬至逐漸成為祭祀祖先和神靈的節慶活動。古人認為自冬至起,天地陽氣漸強,下一輪循環即將到來,是大吉之日。民間素有“冬至大如年”的說法,說明冬至的重要性。現今,很多地區仍保持著冬至祭天祭祖的習俗,如江浙、閩南一帶,在冬至這天要過節慶賀。

               祭拜祖先  潮汕人家在冬至時會備足豬、雞、魚等三牲和果品,上祠堂祭拜祖先,一般都在中午祭拜完畢,午餐時家人團聚。沿海地區如饒平縣海山一帶,漁民則在清晨出海捕魚之前祭祖,意為請神明和祖先保佑漁民出海平安。

        圖4 三門祭冬:龍潭取長流水(攝影:陳興長)

        圖5 三門祭冬:老人宴(攝影:陳興長)

               三門祭冬  每年12月冬至前夕,浙江臺州市三門縣亭旁鎮楊家村歷時3天的祭冬大典就開始受到廣大民眾和媒體的關注。三門祭冬歷史悠久,它以節氣為表,以“敬畏天地、感恩祖宗、敬老愛老、揚義涵德”為核心內容,在慎終追遠的傳統中,完成“春祈秋報”中感恩天地祖先的禮儀。三門祭冬已作為“農歷二十四節氣”的擴展項目入選國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。

        圖6 九九消寒圖

        圖7 九九消寒圖

               九九消寒圖   “九九消寒圖”是一種游戲。明末《帝京景物略》里記載:“冬至日人家畫素梅一枝,為瓣八十有一,日染一瓣,瓣盡而九九出,則春深矣,曰‘九九消寒圖’。”另一種消寒圖是一幅描紅書法,上有繁體的“庭前垂柳珍重待春風”九字,每字九畫,共八十一畫。冬至開始,每天按筆畫順序填充一筆,每過“一九”填充好一個字。“九九”之后,春回大地。 

               冬釀酒  姑蘇地區對冬至節氣非常重視,傳統的姑蘇人家,會在冬至夜喝冬釀酒。冬釀酒是一種米酒,加入桂花釀造,香氣宜人。冬至暢飲的同時,人們還會配以鹵牛肉、鹵羊肉等各式鹵菜。在寒冷的冬天,冬釀酒不僅能夠驅走寒冷,更表達了人們對生活的熱愛。

               吃赤豆粥  冬至日,各地有食赤豆飯、赤豆粥的習俗。在江南水鄉,如浙江嘉興,人們習慣在冬至日的晚上吃赤豆糯米飯。民間認為冬至吃赤小豆粥可以驅避疫鬼、防災祛病。

         圖8 養生赤豆粥 

               包餃子   “冬至餃子夏至面”,北方有冬至吃餃子的風俗。俗話說“冬至不端餃子碗,凍掉耳朵沒人管”。有一種說法,稱這一習俗是為紀念“醫圣”張仲景冬至舍藥醫治人們凍瘡的善舉。雖然餃子在南北方做法各異、名稱不同,但廣受人們喜愛。  

        圖9 冬至吃餃子

        節氣養生

               二十四節氣中,冬至、小寒、大寒是最冷的時節,對高血壓、冠心病等患者來說,需要特別注意防寒保暖。數九寒天,起居需注意早臥晚起,合理安排戶外活動。健康人群可以進行適當的御寒鍛煉,如冷水洗臉等,保持機體的耐寒能力。此外,寒冷冬季還需要注意老年人的低體溫現象,老年人的居室須采取防寒保暖措施。

               寒來暑往,秋收冬藏,冬至前后是進補的好時機。飲食宜多樣,谷類、果蔬、肉類合理搭配,適當選用高鈣食品。冬令養生忌無病進補,藥補也并非多多益善,任何補藥服用過量都是有害的。

        來源:轉載自中國非物質文化遺產保護網

        編輯:王海(云南省非遺保護中心)

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