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        清寒小雪前——二十四節氣之小雪

        發布時間:2018-11-22來源:


        圖1 冬季殘荷(來源:網絡)

        節氣概說 

               小雪,是二十四節氣中的第20個節氣。11月22日或23日,太陽到達黃經240°時為小雪節氣。今年的小雪時間是2018年11月22日(農歷戊戌年十月十五日)。

              《月令七十二候集解》記載:“十月中,雨下而為寒氣所薄,故凝而為雪。小者未盛之辭。” 小雪物候為:“一候虹藏不見;二候天氣上升地氣下降;三候閉塞而成冬。” 天空中的陽氣上升,地中的陰氣下降,天地閉塞進入寒冬。

        圖2 小雪節氣(來源:網絡)

               小雪節氣,廣大地區刮起西北風,白天變短,夜間氣溫逐漸降到0℃以下,大地尚未過于寒冷,開始降雪,雪量不大,故稱小雪。此時寒潮和強冷空氣活動較為頻繁。黃河以北地區會出現初雪,人們需注意御寒保暖了。南方江淮地區開始呈現初冬景象,如北宋文學家蘇軾所寫:“荷盡已無擎雨蓋,菊殘猶有傲霜枝。一年好景君須記,正是橙黃橘綠時”。

        圖3 正是橙黃橘綠時(來源:網絡)

               農事農諺 

               俗話說“小雪地封嚴”,其后江河陸續封凍。小雪節氣初,東北土壤凍結深度已達10厘米,到節氣末凍結至一米多。農諺所說的“小雪雪滿天,來年必豐年”,是說此時的雪水能抗旱防寒,小雪落雪,來年雨水均勻,無大旱澇。此時下雪,可抑制或消除一些病菌和害蟲,此外,積雪還有隔溫保暖作用,有利于土壤的有機物分解,增強土壤肥力,因此,“瑞雪兆豐年”是有一定科學道理的。

        圖4 水彩畫《小雪》(作者:李大嘴)

               小雪時節,天氣越來越冷,盡管人們有貓冬的習慣,但農事不可懈怠。北方地區的果農開始為果樹修枝,包扎株桿,以防果樹受凍。冬天蔬菜多采用深溝貯存,或用地窖。俗話說“小雪鏟白菜,大雪鏟菠菜”、“小雪收蔥,不收就空。蘿卜白菜,收藏窖中”。南方魚塘開始越冬的準備和管理,這是提高越冬成活率的關鍵。北方及高寒地帶大型牲畜越冬飼料的準備工作,對保證牲畜越冬存活也是至關重要的。

               與小雪節氣相關的農諺還有:

        立冬下麥遲,小雪搞積肥。

        立冬小雪北風寒,棉糧油料快收完。

        油菜定植麥續播,貯足飼料莫遲延。

        節到小雪天降雪,農夫此刻不能歇。

        繼續澆灌冬小麥,地未封牢能耕掘。

        植樹造林繼續搞,果樹抓緊來剪截。

        小雪封地,大雪封河。

        小雪地不封,大雪還能耕。

        小雪不起菜,就要受凍害。

        小雪雖冷窩能開,家有樹苗盡管栽。

               時到小雪,打井修渠莫歇。

        小雪到來天漸寒,越冬魚塘莫忘管。

        小雪大雪不見雪,小麥大麥粒要癟。

        圖5 吃糍粑(來源:網絡)

               節氣習俗

               吃糍粑  南方有農歷十月吃糍粑的習俗。糍粑是南方傳統的節日祭品,最早是農民用來祭獻牛神的供品,即俗語所說:“十月朝(農歷十月初一),糍粑碌碌燒”。“碌碌燒”是客家語言,“碌”是像轱轆那樣滾動,指用筷子卷起糯米粉團,前后左右滾動粘上芝麻、花生、砂糖;“燒”,即熱氣騰騰。吃糍粑講究一熱、二玩、三斗(比較),從中可以體味到農家的樂趣。糍粑有做成圓形的,寓意豐收、喜慶和團圓;有做成長方形的,稱為“年糕”,寓意吉祥如意、年豐壽高。有用純糯米或小米做的,也有糯米與小米或玉米一起打成的。吃糍粑可以用油煎,還可以和青菜煮食,或和臘肉一起炒著吃。

        圖6 打糍粑(來源:網絡)

               腌臘肉  小雪時節氣溫急劇下降,天氣變得干燥,是加工臘肉的好時候。民間有“冬臘風腌,蓄以御冬”的習俗。南方很多人對臘味食品情有獨鐘。此時,一些農家開始動手做香腸、臘肉,做好后正是春節,可以做年貨。小雪至立春前,農家殺豬宰羊,除了過年用的鮮肉外,其余的用食鹽,配以一定比例的花椒、大茴、八角、桂皮、丁香等香料,腌入缸中;七到十五天后,用繩索串掛起來,晾干;一個月左右,便可食用。城市人家如想品到臘味,大多是在市場上購買或托家鄉親友熏制好寄送來,不過如今電商經濟發達,足不出戶,就可以收到來自家鄉的各種美味。

        圖7 布依村寨腌臘肉(來源:網絡)

               曬魚干  小雪時節,臺灣中南部的漁民開始曬魚干、儲存干糧。烏魚群會在小雪前后來到臺灣海峽,另外還有旗魚、沙魚等。臺灣俗諺說:“十月豆,肥到不見頭”,是指在嘉義縣西南沿海一帶,到了農歷十月可以捕到“豆仔魚”。曬魚干一般要選大魚。買回魚后,把魚去鱗、去內臟;清理干凈后,將炒好的調料均勻抹在魚的內外兩側,之后將其平放在較大的容器里面,在陰涼處晾置;四五天后,將魚上下翻個,以便調料均勻吸收,再過四五天,便可將魚掛在陰涼通風處。一般情況下,晾曬兩三個月后便可取下切段,封存后等待食用。

        圖8 曬魚干(來源:網絡)

               吃刨湯 土家族人會在小雪前后用上等新鮮豬肉烹飪傳統食品,款待親友。“刨湯”,是用豬內雜、肥肉等剁細后拌糯米飯、豬血及少量香料調制,灌進洗凈的小腸,再放入鍋中煮制而成。

               節氣養生 小雪時節,天氣通常陰冷晦暗、日照減少,容易引發或加重抑郁情緒,需注意舒緩情志、享受日光。起居需要注意御寒保暖,適當通風換氣,多飲水,預防感冒,健康人群可堅持適度的耐寒鍛煉。

        圖9 小雪節氣前的九華山(攝影:江曉雯)

               在飲食方面,宜吃溫補食物,適當進補可平衡陰陽。進補時需注意分清補品的性能和適用范圍,或吃些性冷的食物來調和,如蘿卜、松花蛋等。

        來源:轉載自中國非物質文化遺產網

        編輯:王海(云南省非遺保護中心)

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