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        尼汝藏族傳統文化保護區

        發布時間:2015-04-29來源:系統管理員

              “尼汝”,“尼”意為眼,“汝”意為角,“尼汝”因整個地形象人的眼角,故而得名,尼汝地處“三江并流”世界自然遺產十景區的第一景區,尼汝地處滇川貢嘎嶺山脈支系,這里是香格里拉縣重要原始森林區,也是唯一免遭森工企業采伐的“處女地”,生態保持完好。。畜牧業是尼汝的特色經濟之一,占該村農民收入的60%以上。有納波、屬都、屬姑、德杰四大牧場。

        尼汝傳統文化:

        (1)尼汝,素被譽為“農布拉依”(意為殊勝天界)。雖不象藏傳佛教圣地西藏那樣古剎林立、高僧眾多,諸路神佛云集,但在整個建塘(香格里拉)地區,這樣一個彈丸之地的宗教卻深受苯教、寧瑪派、噶瑪噶舉派和格魯派的影響,演變出“倉巴”、“昂吹”、“面翁”等地方性支系宗教而別有特色。后來藏傳佛教的寧瑪、噶舉、格魯等教派逐漸傳入,在漫長的歲月里,苯教和藏傳佛教兼容并存,相得益彰。在尼汝村中建有苯教的經幡塔(吹拉)、“瑪尼堆”,同時崇拜這里一切自然現象。如:神山、神樹、神泉、神洞(仙人洞)等。苯教徒“倉巴” 的主要職業是為當地群眾祈福禳災,卜卦治病幾審度吉兇,施收送鬼用品等,受當地群眾的崇尚,苯教在尼汝藏民心中根深蒂固,對當地的生活生產、民風民俗有著深遠的影響。目前尼汝全村全民信仰原始宗教——苯教和藏傳佛教。(2)尼汝藏族很早就有自己的苯教歷法,以月亮圓、缺、朔、塑計算月份。藏族歷算,根據宇宙大自然規律和雪域的特殊環境,推算的陰陽五行、相生相克、四時節令,對當地人民的生活起著至關重要的作用。

        (3)在尼汝,地方特色濃厚的傳統節日有農歷二月十五日“開犁節”,四月十五日“祭水神節”,七月十五日“丹巴節”,九月十五日“祭山跑馬節”。部分節日因文革時遭禁止,至今還未恢復。

        (4)尼汝藏族以游牧為主,畜牧業在尼汝村經濟中起主導作用,在生產生活中占著重要的地位,長期的游牧生活使他們與毛紡織業結下了不解之緣,如:穿的毛布、毛披風、皮衣、毛毯子,用的毛繩、皮繩、皮馬鞍、皮墊等。紡織品是他們生產生活中不可缺少的必需品, 全村不論男女老少都能紡能織、能縫并代代相傳。尼汝的紡織業浸透著深厚的游牧民族文化內涵,具有鮮明的民族個性和較高的審美價值,有濃郁的地方民族特色。

        (5)尼汝豐富多彩的藏族服飾具有悠久的歷史以及獨特的結構樣式和藝術特點。

        (6)尼汝民間音樂舞蹈主要是“茨拉”(鍋莊)中的“尼茨”(古舊鍋莊)為主,無伴奏,茨尼相傳在吐蕃祖孫三法王時期就已流傳于此地,反映了奴隸社會和原始宗教形態,舞步比較拘謹,神情凝重,帶有宗教祭祀色彩。


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