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        哈尼族多聲部音樂“栽秧山歌”

        發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

              哈尼族多聲部音樂“栽秧山歌”流傳于紅河哈尼族彝族自治州紅河縣以普春村為中心的數個哈尼族村落。

               “栽秧山歌”哈尼語為“吾處阿茨”,是哈尼族傳統山歌“阿哧”的一個代表作品。栽秧山歌內容豐富,包括歌頌勞動、贊美愛情、謳歌山野田園美景等類別,大都與生產勞動,特別是梯田水稻栽秧直接相關,從栽秧開始一直可以唱到谷子發黃的豐收時節,即從農歷一月唱到農歷“十月年”。
              栽秧山歌的演唱以栽秧時節最為普遍和熱鬧,有的地方有專門的歌手在梯田間現場演唱助興,更多的則是栽秧的婦女邊勞動邊即興演唱。普春村凡16歲以上的女子都會唱。演唱形式一為主唱和幫腔,一般7人,主唱1人,幫腔6人(4女2男)。如有樂隊伴奏,則樂隊起奏后主唱再開腔,主唱結束一個段落時,幫腔者先后分聲部進入,形成多聲部的效果。二為有樂器伴奏和無樂器伴奏:在屋內和舞臺上演唱時的樂器為直笛(扎比)、小三弦(拉核)、三弦小二胡(拉核慈窩)和樹葉,在田間地頭則用野姜葉做成吹管樂器“梅琶”單獨伴奏。
              “栽秧山歌”演唱結構由引句開腔、主唱和幫腔三個部分組成,構成一個演唱段落。這一段落也就是整個“栽秧山歌”的演唱基礎,音樂段落持續重復,但唱詞不同。演唱中主唱是核心,唱主題和具體內容,幫腔只唱襯詞,用和聲即多聲部復調支持主唱,樂隊則進行伴奏。“幫腔跟著主唱走,何時進入有跟扣;管子緊隨人聲行,弦索常在吹管后;唱奏旋律各有異,自由變化在心頭;支聲復調天然成,多聲諧合樂悠悠”。目前其聲部已達到8個聲部,聲樂效果豐滿,優美動聽。
              “栽秧山歌”對研究哈尼族的梯田農耕文化和歷史淵源有重要價值,尤其有助于了解哈尼族一年四季的生產勞作習俗及文化。20世紀80年代以來,栽秧山歌的獨特調式和多聲部演唱法逐漸引起外界關注,先后赴國內外交流演出,并在中央電視臺西部民歌電視大賽中成功亮相展演。哈尼族的多聲部音樂沒有嚴格的師傳或家傳制度,多為耳濡目染、口傳心授。目前,普春村多聲部音樂有代表性的傳承者達十余人,村中多數中青年和老年女子均能演唱。

         

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