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        彝族海菜腔

        發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

              石屏彝族海菜腔是海內外知名的云南特有的民歌品種,流傳于紅河哈尼族彝族自治州石屏縣的彝族村落。
              海菜腔又稱大攀槳、倒扳槳,俗稱石屏腔,與其他3種變體曲調沙悠腔、四腔、五山腔并稱為“四大腔”,彝族均自稱曲子。海菜腔歷史悠久,清代地方志中,有關于海菜腔歌唱的記載和詩文描述。民間至今流傳著一些與海菜腔有關的傳說、故事和習俗,如傳統的異龍湖“二月初十賽歌會”上,要“跳弦”(煙盒舞)和進行“唱曲子”(海菜腔)比賽等。
              海菜腔通常由一至二人領唱,眾人(三人以上)幫腔,一般是男女對唱。其演唱形式包含了領唱、對唱、合唱、說唱等。曲調通常由拘腔、空腔、正七腔、挜腔及白話腔等部分組成,結構復雜,篇幅宏大,唱詞工整,內容豐富,可謂是歌中有歌,曲中有曲,有“民歌中的套曲”之說。民間歌手演唱一套完整的海菜腔,少則40多分鐘,多則需一個小時以上才能完成。海菜腔的唱詞大體可分為“正詞”、“襯詞”兩大類。其中,“正詞”只有固定的28個字,格式相當于一首七絕詩。而“襯詞”多為演唱者即興編創,內容涉及廣泛。海菜腔音域跨度極大,一個老練的民間歌手在演唱海菜腔時,會巧妙地交替運用真假嗓,音色尖亮,優美自然。由于歷史上彝漢文化的交融,現在民間演唱海菜腔基本上以漢語為主。
              20世紀50年代,海菜腔經著名彝族歌手白秀貞等人的演唱蜚聲中外;2004年1月,彝族民間歌手李懷秀、施萬恒參加中央電視臺舉辦的“西部民歌電視大賽”演唱海菜腔獲對唱組金獎;民間歌手李懷秀、李懷福姐弟2005年8月參加文化部在山西舉辦的“第二屆中國南北民歌擂臺賽”,獲“中國民歌王”稱號;2006年7月參加全國青年歌手大獎賽,獲原生態唱法第一名。

        石屏縣牛街鄉大冷山上的對唱場景

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