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        哈尼族四季生產調

        發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

              哈尼族“四季生產調”流傳于紅河哈尼族彝族自治州紅河、元陽、綠春、金平等縣。哈尼族歷史上無文字,其先民積累的大量關于對自然、動植物、生產生活的豐富技能和經驗形成一套完整的農業生產生活和民間文化知識體系,經過總結提煉,以通俗易懂的歌謠“四季生產調”一代代傳承,使哈尼族農耕生產、生活的傳統文化一直延續至今。
              “四季生產調”雖有不同版本,但主要內容相同。現在紅河州收集到的歌謠約1670行,分為引子、冬季三月、春季三月、夏季三月、秋季三月5個部分,完整再現了哈尼族的勞動生產程序和生活風俗畫面,傳授系統的哈尼族梯田農耕生產技術和獨特生活習俗,是一部完整的哈尼族生產生活教科書。引子部分有41行,用精彩生動的語言強調了傳承古歌、傳授傳統知識的重要性,其余部分按季節順序講述或介紹梯田農耕的程序,包括泡田、打埂、育種、撒秧、插秧、拔秧、栽秧、薅秧、打谷子、背谷子、入倉等過程及相關的民俗活動。其中也包括了與農耕活動相應的天文歷法和自然物候變化規律,用通俗易懂的語言描繪了哈尼族祭寨神、六月年“矻扎扎”、十月年這3個祈禱和慶豐收的節日,并對年輕人進行人生禮儀教育。
              “四季生產調”體系嚴整、通俗易懂、可誦可唱;內容非常詳細具體,可操作性強,語言生動活潑、直白樸素;傳承歷史悠久,傳承的群眾基礎廣泛,不僅是梯田生產技術的全面總結,也是哈尼族社會倫理道德的集合之作。主要是“莫批”(哈尼族民間文化傳承人)通過收徒弟的方式、家庭傳承及在節慶或公眾場合演唱等方式進行傳承。目前,能系統傳唱“四季生產調”的長輩藝人和祭司已屈指可數,其傳承亟需加強。

         

        云南省文化和旅游廳 云南省非物質文化遺產保護中心
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