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        彝族敘事長詩《阿詩瑪》

        發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

                彝族敘事長詩《阿詩瑪》流傳于昆明市石林彝族自治縣。
                《阿詩瑪》的原創用撒尼彝語演唱,在20世紀50年代以前,用撒尼彝語演唱的《阿詩瑪》在撒尼彝區十分盛行,漢文翻譯整理本和其他藝術形式演繹的《阿詩瑪》問世后,在國內外產生良好影響,但用撒尼語演唱的《阿詩瑪》在撒尼彝區卻處于瀕危狀態,現在能用撒尼語演唱《阿詩瑪》的藝人已寥寥無幾。
                《阿詩瑪》用口傳詩體語言和敘事曲調來講述“阿詩瑪”的故事,刻畫了阿黑和阿詩瑪不屈不撓同強權勢力作斗爭,最后變成了群山中的“回聲”和石林中的“石峰”,把美麗留給人間的故事,表示光明終將戰勝黑暗,善美終將戰勝丑惡,自由終將戰勝壓迫,反映了彝族撒尼人“斷得彎不得”的民族性格和民族精神。在撒尼人的心目中,阿黑和阿詩瑪分別是英雄和美麗的象征。
                《阿詩瑪》分為南北兩個流派,南部流派分布為圭山鄉、畝竹箐鄉、尾則鄉,北部流派分布為北大村鄉、西街口鄉、石林鎮。兩個流派均大同小異。《阿詩瑪》可講述也可傳唱,演唱所占比例較大,有獨唱、對唱、一人領唱眾人合唱幾種形式。曲調有“喜調”、“老人調”、“悲調”、“哭調”、“罵調”等,演唱者根據其年齡、性別選用相應的曲調。《阿詩瑪》以五言句傳唱,在技巧上使用了伏筆、夸張、諷刺等手法,在藝術形式上使用了諧音、頂針、拈連、比喻等技巧,主要在節日、婚嫁、祭祀、葬儀、勞動、生活等不同場合中進行傳唱和講述,其中尤以婚禮時演唱最為盛行。
                自20世紀50年代初漢文整理本發表以來,《阿詩瑪》先后被翻譯成英、法、德、西班牙、俄、日、韓等多種語言版本在海外流傳,在國內被改編成電影,這也是中國第一部彩色寬銀幕立體聲音樂歌舞片。還被改編為京劇、滇劇、歌劇、舞劇、撒尼劇等。其漢文整理本被評為20世紀中國“百年百種優秀中國文學圖書”,舞劇被評為“中華民族20世紀舞蹈經典”,同名電影于1982年獲西班牙桑坦德第一屆國際音樂最佳舞蹈片獎。作為公認的中國民間文學優秀作品,《阿詩瑪》被編進高等院校“民間文學”教科書、權威性辭書《辭海》及《中國大百科全書·中國文學》等。

           

         

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